PreImplantation Factor (PIF) promoting role in embryo implantation: increases endometrial Integrin-α2β3, amphiregulin and epiregulin while reducing betacellulin expression via MAPK in decidua
1 SIEP - Society for the Investigation of Early Pregnancy, 1697 Lark Lane, Cherry Hill, NJ, 08003, USA
2 BioIncept LLC, 1697 Lark Lane, Cherry Hill, NJ, 08003, USA
3 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, NJ, USA
4 PharmMedInfo, Poulsbo, WA, USA
5 Yale Women and Children’s Center for Blood Disorders, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, PO Box 208063, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2012, 10:50 doi:10.1186/1477-7827-10-50Published: 12 July 2012
Viable embryos secrete preimplantation factor (PIF), a peptide that has autocrine effects where levels correlate with cultured embryos development. sPIF (PIF synthetic analog) promotes implantation by regulating decidual-cells immunity, adhesion, apoptosis and enhances trophoblastic cell invasion. Herein sPIF priming effects on non-decidualized endometrium and decidualized-stroma are investigated, assessing elements critical for effective embryo-maternal cross-talk, prior to and at implantation.
We tested sPIF effect on human non-pregnant endometrial epithelial and non-decidualized stroma α2β3 integrin expression (IHC and flow cytometry), comparing with scrambled PIF (PIFscr-control). We examined sPIF effect on decidualized non-pregnant human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) determining pro-inflammatory mediators expression and secretion (ELISA) and growth factors (GFs) expression (Affymetrix global gene array). We tested sPIF effect on HESC Phospho-kinases (BioPlex) and isolated kinases activity (FastKinase).
sPIF up-regulates α2β3 integrin expression in epithelial cells, (P < 0.05) while PIFscr had no effect. In contrast, in stromal cell cultures sPIF had no effect on the same. In HESC, sPIF up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL8, IL1β and IL6 expression. The major increase in GRO-α, ICAM-1 and MCP-3 expression is coupled with same ligands secretion (P < 0.05). sPIF modulates in HESC GFs expression: up-regulates amphiregulin and epiregulin- critical for implantation and enhances several fibroblast growth factors (FGF) relevant for decidual function. In contrast, sPIF down-regulates major pro-proliferative ligands, betacellulin and IGF1 expression. sPIF modulatory effect on GFs is exerted by down-regulating pro-proliferative phospho-activated MAPkinases, p-MEK1 and p-ERK (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, respectively). Stress-induced p-38-MAPK (P = 0.04) and c-Jun kinase signaling involved MAPK8IP2 (−2.1 fold) expression decreased which protects against reactive oxygen species. Although pro-inflammatory p-NFkB (P = 0.06) decrease was mild, its promoter TNFRS11 expression markedly (−25-fold) decreased. In contrast, anti-proliferative phosphatases PTPRZ1 and PPP2R2C expression increased.
sPIF post-fertilization primes endometrial-epithelium, while during implantation creates a beneficial pro-inflammatory milieu. PIF acts by balancing decidual pro-implantation properties while controlling excessive pro-proliferative and inflammatory signals expression. Overall, PIF influences critical peri-implantation events in a sequential coordinated fashion which facilitates embryo implantation.