Figure 1.

Effect of clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. A. Clearance of apoptotic cells induce the expression, by macrophages, of anti-inflammatory cytokines with protective effects on trophoblast survival and immunological tolerance. B. Changes in the cytokine milieu, owing to elevated levels of apoptotic bodies and inefficient clearance, will result in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that in turn may result in changes in trophoblast resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis and the maternal immune system

Mor and Abrahams Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2003 1:119   doi:10.1186/1477-7827-1-119
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